TERIPHIC: Fabrication and assembly automation of TERabit
optical transceivers based on InP EML arrays and a Polymer Host platform for optical InterConnects up to 2 km and beyond
[January 2019 – December 2021]
PCRL coordinates TERIPHIC project. Efforts to develop optical interfaces with Terabit capacity for datacom applications have kicked off. A practical path to the Terabit regime is to scale the current 400G modules, which are based (in the most forward looking version of the standards) on 4 parallel lanes, each operating with PAM-4 at 53 Gbaud. Scaling these modules by adding lanes looks simple, but entails challenges with respect to the fabrication and assembly complexity that can critically affect their manufacturability and cost. TERIPHIC aims to address these challenges by leveraging photonic integration concepts and developing a seamless chain of component fabrication, assembly automation and module characterization processes as the basis for high-volume production lines of Terabit modules. TERIPHIC will bring together EML arrays in the O-band, PD arrays and a polymer chip that will act as the host platform for the integration of the arrays and the wavelength mux-demux of the lanes. The integration will rely on butt-end-coupling steps, which will be automated via the development of module specific alignment and attachment processes on commercial equipment. The optical subassembly will be mounted on the mainboard of the module together with linear driver and TIA arrays. The assembly process will be based on the standard methodologies of MLNX and the use of polymer FlexLines for the interconnection of the optical subassembly with the drivers and the TIAs. Using these methods, TERIPHIC will develop pluggable modules with 8 lanes (800G capacity) and mid-board modules with 16 lanes (1.6T capacity) having a reach of at least 2 km. Compared to the 400G standards, the modules will reduce by 50% the power consumption per Gb/s, and will have a cost of 0.3 Euro/Gb/s. After assembly, the modules will be mounted on the line cards of MLNX switches, and will be tested in real settings. A study for the consolidation of the methods and the set up of a pilot assembly line in the post-project era will be also made.
UNIQORN: Affordable Quantum Communication for Everyone: Revolutionizing the Quantum Ecosystem from
Fabrication to Application
[October 2018 – September 2021]
PCRL participates in UNIQORN project. Quantum communication is recognised as one of the pillars for the second quantum revolution thanks to its unique potential for information-theoretical data security. Turning this promise into tangible assets depends however, on the availability of high-performance, compact and cost-effective modules for practical implementations. UNIQORN is a well-orchestrated design and manufacturing framework aiming to advance the quantum communication technology for DV and CV systems by carefully laying out each element along the development chain from fabrication to application. Component-wise, UNIQORN will leverage the monolithic integration potential of InP platform, the flexibility of polymer platform and low-cost assembly techniques to develop quantum system-on-chip modules in a cheap, scalable and reproducible way. UNIQORN will deliver bright (10M pairs/s/mW/THz) heralded, entangled and squeezed light sources with 70-fold size reduction and almost 90% cost savings, room-temperature arrayed SPADs and a 10-GHz CV receiver with low-noise TIAs. Fully functional systems based on these assets will include: (i) a network adapter card with integrated real-time QRNG engine, (ii) the first DPS transmitter as pluggable SFP module for low-cost 1-kb/s QKD, and (iii) novel oblivious transfer and quantum FPGA systems. Network-integration and system evaluation in real fibre networks will be enabled by quantum-aware software defined networking and field trials in the live Smart-City demonstrator Bristol-is-Open. The power of the developed ecosystem will be also validated by pushing current QKD-centric work into higher grounds, and demonstrating one-time programs and secure database access through oblivious transfer. The trans-disciplinary approach of UNIQORN brings together leading European players from quantum optics and photonics enabling to move from lab science to field deployment and bridge the quantum divide between large (governmental) and small (residential) end-users.
QAMeleon: Sliceable multi-QAM format SDN-powered transponders and ROADMs Enabling Elastic Optical Networks
[January 2018 – December 2021]
PCRL coordinates QAMeleon project. Sustained 2-digit growth in internet traffic is raising the need for new photonic technologies enabling Petabit/s network capacities, whereas suppressed operator margins call for new concepts to make these networks more efficient. QAMeleon aims at a holistic solution towards scaling metro/core networks to the next decade. A new generation of SDN-programmable photonic components, modules and subsystems will be delivered, employing sliceability as a means of optimizing resource utilization and cutting operator costs by >30%.
At the transponder side, QAMeleon will develop components for 2 generations ahead: Operating at 128 Gbaud, they will bring significant savings in footprint (>13×), energy/bit (10.4×) and cost/bit (>4.3×). At the ROADM side, QAMeleon will develop large-scale flex-grid wavelength-selective switches (1×24 WSS) and transponder aggregators (8×24 TPA), reducing footprint and cost/port by more than 40% and 28% respectively, with energy savings per ROADM node reaching 4×. Addressing the emerging needs of 5G network backhaul and datacenter interconnect (DCI) metro-access networks where dynamicity is pivotal, QAMeleon will develop an integrated flex-grid 1×4 WSS with nanosecond-scale switching time. The fast 1×4 WSS will be scalable to large channel counts (i.e. full C-band) and will enable savings in footprint, energy consumption and cost by 20×, 11.5× and 36% respectively.
QAMeleon will integrate its innovative photonic components into functional subsystems: A 3 Tb/s sliceable bandwidth-variable transponder (S-BVT), a flexible ROADM with large-scale WSSs and TPAs, and a fast ROADM for metro-access. All necessary SDN software extensions, plugins and application interfaces will be developed, providing a complete functional SDN framework for the sliceable “white box” subsystems. QAMeleon’s devices will be integrated with the SDN software and validated in scalable demonstrators at Nokia’s lab infrastructure and on TIM’s deployed regional network fiber plant
3PEAT: A3D Photonic integration platform based on multilayer PolyBoard and TriPleX technology for optical switching and remote sensing and ranging applications
[January 2018 – December 2020]
PCRL coordinates 3PEAT project. 3PEAT will develop a powerful photonic integration technology with all size, functionality and quality credentials in order to help a broad range of optical applications like optical switching and remote sensing, to achieve a strong commercial impact. In order to do so, the project will introduce a fully functional 3D photonic integration platform based on the use of multiple waveguiding layers and vertical couplers in a polymer technology (PolyBoard), as a means to disrupt the integration scale and functionality. Moreover, 3PEAT will combine this powerful 3D photonic technology with a silicon-nitride platform (TriPleX), via the development of a methodology for the deposition and processing of multilayer polymers inside etched windows on TriPleX chips. In parallel with the development of this hybrid 3D technology, 3PeaT will bring a number of key innovations at the integration and component level relating to: a) the heterogeneous integration of PZT films on TriPleX platform for development of phase shifters and switches for operation up to 50 MHz, b) the development of a disruptive external cavity laser on the same platform with linewidth less than 1 kHz, c) the development for the first time of an integrated circulator on PolyBoard with isolation more than 25 dB, and d) the development of flexible types of PolyBoards for the purpose of physical interconnection of other PICs. This enormous breadth of innovations can remove the current limitations and unleash the full potential of optical switching and remote sensing and ranging applications. The main switching module that will be fabricated will be a 36×36 optical switch with 20 ns switching time and possibility for power and cost savings of almost 95% compared to standard electronic solutions. The main sensing module on the other hand will be a disruptive Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) with all of its optical units, including its optical beam scanning unit, integrated on a very large, hybrid 3D PIC.
ACTPHAST 4.0: ACceleraTing PHotonics innovAtion for SME’s: a one STop-shop-incubator
[November 2017 – October 2021]
PCRL participates in ACTPHAST 4.0 project. ACTPHAST 4.0 is a unique “one-stop-shop rapid prototyping incubator” for supporting photonics innovation by European companies, which is financially supported by the European Commission under Horizon2020. ACTPHAST will support and accelerate the innovation capacity of European companies by providing them with direct access to the expertise and state-of-the-art facilities of Europe’s leading photonics research centres (24 ACTPHAST 4.0 partners), enabling companies to exploit the tremendous commercial potential of applied photonics. ACTPHAST 4.0 provides the full spectrum of technology platforms ranging from fibre optics and micro optics, to highly integrated photonic platforms (7 technology platforms), with capabilities extending from design through to full system prototyping.
ACTPHAST 4.0 has taken care to ensure that all European companies (big and small but particularly targeted at SMEs) can avail of timely, cost-effective, and low risk photonics innovation support. The aim is to capitalise on the extensive range of capabilities of ACTPHAST 4.0 partners to impact across a wide range of industrial sectors, from communications to consumer-related products, and life sciences to industrial manufacturing. The access of European companies to ACTPHAST 4.0 capabilities will be realised through focused innovation projects executed in relatively short timeframes with a critical mass of suitably qualified companies with high potential product concepts. Furthermore, through its extensive outreach activities, the programme will ensure there is an increased level of awareness and understanding across European industries of the technological and commercial potential of photonics, especially amongst the first users and “non-photonics” end users industries.
PCRL participates in ACTPHAST 4.0 in a three-fold manner: (i) as technology provider in photonics telecom, datacom and free space domains; (ii) one appointed member (Prof. Avramopoulos) in the Technical Coordination Team (TCT) of ACTPHAST and (iii) formal representative of ACTPHAST’s outreach activities in the area of Greece, Cyprus, Israel and Turkey.
5G-PHOS: 5G integrated Fiber-Wireless networks exploiting existing photonic technologies for high-density SDN-programmable network architectures
[September 2017-August 2020]
PCRL participates in 5G-PHOS project. 5G-PHOS aims to architect and evaluate 5G broadband wireless networks for dense, ultra-dense and Hot-Spot area use cases drawing from recent results in the area of optical technologies towards producing and exploiting a powerful
photonic integrated circuit technology toolkit. It aims to streamline advances in multi-format and multi-bitrate optical communications, in InP transceiver, in Triplex optical beamformers and in integrated optical add/drop multiplexers in
order to migrate from CPRI-based towards integrated Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) packetized C-RAN fronthaul supporting massive mmWave MIMO communications.It will deliver: a) a set of SDN-programmable units, called FlexBox and
FlexBox-Pro, that will be compatible with the emerging 25Gb/s PON access networks and can deliver FiWi traffic ranging between 25-400Gb/s, b) a set of three different 64×64 MIMO Remote Radio Head configurations exploiting
analog optical beamforming and producing 25Gb/s,100Gb/s and 400Gb/s wireless data-rates, c) an integrated FiWi packetized fronthaul for supporting Medium-Transparent Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation mechanisms and
cooperative radio-optical beamforming, d) a converged FiWi SDN control plane for optimally orchestrating both the optical and the wireless resources. These blocks will be integrated towards architecting 5G networks for 3 use cases,
evaluating their performance in lab-scale and field-trial experiments:
a. 25Gb/s peak data rate PON-overlaid 5G FiWi network for dense areas, capable to offer densities up to 1.7 Tb/s/km2 , to be demonstrated also in field-trial experiments at the deployed network of Greek operator COSMOTE.
b. 400Gb/s peak data-rate SDM-enabled 5G FiWi network targeted for ultra-dense environments and being capable of offering densities up to 28 Tb/s/km2 with <1msec latency.
c.100Gb/s peak data-rate WDM-enabled 5G FiWi network targeted for Hot-Spot areas and being evaluated in field-trial experiments at the stadium of P.A.O.K. F.C. in Thessaloniki, Greece.
BIOCDx: A miniature Bio-photonics Companion Diagnostics platform for reliable cancer diagnosis and treatment monitoring.
[January 2017-December 2019]
PCRL coordinates BIOCDx project. Current diagnostic options for cancer treatment monitoring rely on imaging techniques and cannot guarantee proper assessment of therapeutic response. This project aims to develop a disruptive Point of Care (PoC) device for cancer early diagnosis and treatment monitoring as a companion diagnostics tool. One of the scientific breakthroughs of this project is the development of a “cancer stem cells” detection platform by virtue of expression of the cancer stem cell-specific transcription factor TWIST1, which controls the expression of the bloodstream circulating biomarkers like POSTN. Cancer stem cells represent the most aggressive/tumorigenic cell compartment within tumors. BIOCDx will combine advanced concepts from the photonic, nano-biochemical, micro-fluidic and reader/packaging platforms aiming to overcome limitations related to detection reliability, sensitivity, specificity, compactness and cost issues. BIOCDx will rely on ultrasensitive, photonic elements based on an array of 8 asymmetric MZI waveguides fabricated by TriPlex technology on silicon nitride substrates and will achieve a 100 fold improvement –with respect to current technologies- of sensitivity (<10-8 RIU). BIOCDx will employ a smart concept of signal multiplexing for lowering the number of photodetectors required in multi-analyte detection and allowing for a substantial reduction of chip size. A sandwich assay, enhanced with nanoparticles, will be developed, based on the use of two antibodies per protein, to detect all three circulating proteins. This will enhance the limit of detection (LOD) close to femtomolar and the reliability. BIOCDx photonic, nano-biochemical, fluidics and packaging platforms will be integrated into a portable, desktop PoC device. Its validation in preclinical and clinical setting will be performed in three cancer types: breast cancer, hormone-independent prostate cancer and melanoma.
PICs4ALL: Photonic Integrated Circuits Accessible to Everyone
[January 2016-December 2018]
PCRL participates in the PICs4ALL CSA project, which aims to increase the impact of photonics and enable access to advanced photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technologies for academia, research institutes, SMEs and larger companies. PICs4ALL will establish a European network of Application Support Centres (ASCs) in the field of PIC technology to connect PIC-development infrastructure throughout Europe. The main task of the ASCs is to lower the barrier to Researchers and SMEs for applying advanced PICs, and thus to increase the awareness of the existence of the worldwide unique facility provided by JePPIX (InP and TriPleX PIC design, manufacturing, testing and packaging). PICs4All ASCs actively support users in taking full advantage of the PIC-technology and its deployment in existing and new applications. To achieve its vision the project combines the two targets of an EC supported CSA, i.e. enabling the access to advanced design, fabrication and characterisation facilities, and stimulating the innovation potential of users, especially SMEs, by supplying hands-on support in developing their business cases.
PCRL will serve as one of the eight ASCs in PICs4ALL, serving users mainly from the geographical area of south-eastern Europe and Eastern Mediterranean. As such, PCRL will actively scout opportunities for the use of PICs in new and existing applications, will promote the use of photonics technology platforms, increase the load of the foundries and support interested users with feasibility studies, design, testing and interface to the foundries.
HAMLET: Heterogeneous Advancement and hybrid integration of polymer and tripLEx platform for Integrated Microwave PhoTonics
[December 2015 – November 2018]
PCRL coordinates HAMLET. The new generation of broadband microwave systems in various fields (wireless communications, satellite communications, sensing, medical imaging) and especially the emerging 5G wireless technology, have very high requirements in terms of carrier frequency, bandwidth, dynamic range, size, power consumption, tunability, and immunity to electromagnetic interference. In parallel, when the microwave signals that need to be processed have a very high carrier frequency, the integrated circuits should be able to offer high-bandwidth modulation and detection. The combination of these requirements is very challenging, and the necessary photonic integration technology that could exploit the full potential of MWP technology is still missing. Towards that end, HAMLET aims to develop a powerful photonic integration technology, tailored for the first time to the needs of MWP and that will enable the corresponding discipline to meet the expectations for commercial uptake with the advent of 5G era. HAMLET will rely on the heterogeneous integration of graphene sheets on polymer and PZT layers on low-loss Si3N4/SiO2 platforms, so as to develop very fast graphene based electro-absorption modulators and an extensive optical beam forming network. With this hybrid technology HAMLET will develop transceivers to seamlessly interface the optical fronthaul and radio access at the remote antenna units (RAUs) of 5G base stations.
NEPHELE: eNd to End scalable and dynamically reconfigurable oPtical arcHitecture for application-awarE SDN cLoud datacentErs
[February 2015 – January 2018]
PCRL is coordinating NEPHELE project, developing a dynamic optical network infrastructure for future scale-out, disaggregated datacenters. NEPHELE’s end-to-end solution extends from the datacenter architecture and optical subsystem design, to the overlaying control plane and application interfaces. NEPHELE builds on the enormous capacity of optical links and leverages hybrid optical switching to attain the ideal combination of high bandwidth at reduced cost and power compared to current datacenter networks.
A fully functional control plane overlay is being developed, comprising a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) controller along with its interfaces. The southbound interface abstracts physical layer infrastructure and allows dynamic hardware-level network reconfigurability. The northbound interface links the SDN controller with the application requirements through an Application Programming Interface. NEPHELE’s innovative control plane merges hardware and software virtualization over the hybrid optical infrastructure and integrates SDN modules and functions for inter-datacenter connectivity, enabling dynamic bandwidth allocation based on the needs of migrating VMs and existing Service Level Agreements for transparent networking among telecom and datacenter operators’ domains.
ORCHESTRA: Optical peRformanCe monitoring enabling dynamic networks using a Holistic cross-layEr, Self-configurable Truly flexible appRoAch
[February 2015 – January 2018]
PCRL participates in the ORCHESTRA project which aims to develop a highly-flexible optical network that can be dynamically reconfigured and optimized. It does this by constantly monitoring impairment information provided by the network’s coherent transceivers that are extended, almost for free, to operate as software defined multi-impairment optical performance monitors (soft-OPM). Information from multiple soft-OPMs can be correlated to infer information for unmonitored or un-established paths, effectively supporting alien wavelengths, and localize QoT problems and failures. The network is viewed as a continuously running process that perceives current conditions, decides, and acts on those conditions. ORCHESTRA‘s advanced cross-layer optimization procedures will be implemented within a new specifically designed library module, called DEPLOY. A new dynamic and hierarchical control and monitoring (C&M) infrastructure will be then created to interconnect the multiple soft-OPMs and the proposed virtual and real C&M entities running the DEPLOY algorithms, exploiting the reconfigurability capabilities of enhanced tunable transceivers. At the top of the hierarchical infrastructure, a novel OAM Handler prototype will be implemented, as part of the SDN-based ABNO architecture. The proposed C&M infrastructure will be enriched with active-control functionalities, closing the control loop, and enabling the network to be truly dynamic and self-optimized.
PCRL’s role in the project is concerned with the physical layer aspects of ORCHESTRA. Specifically, it will develop a flexible optical transceiver prototype based on discrete commercial components, capable of multiple QAM formats and variable throughputs. PCRL will also develop DSP algorithms for software-defined impairment-monitoring.
PANTHER: PAssive and electro-optic polymer photonics and InP electronics iNtegration for multi-flow Terabit transceivers at edge SDN switcHes and data-centER gateways
[January 2014 – August 2017]
PCRL coordinates PANTHER. Multi-rate, multi-format and multi-reach operation of optical transceivers is important, but it is not enough for next generation terabit products. What is still missing to make these products viable is a solution for the flexible control of this enormous capacity at the optical layer and its distribution among a number of independent optical flows. PANTHER aims to provide this solution and develop multi-rate, multi-format, multi-reach and multi-flow terabit transceivers for edge switches and data-center gateways. To this end, PANTHER combines electro-optic with passive polymers and develops a novel photonic integration platform with unprecedented potential for high-speed modulation and optical functionality on-chip. It also relies on the combination of polymers with InP gain chips and photodiode arrays, and on the use of the InP-DHBT platform for driving circuits based on 3-bit power-DACs and high-speed TIA arrays. Using 3D integration techniques, PANTHER integrates these components in compact system-in-package transceivers capable of operation at rates up to 64 Gbaud, operation with formats up to DP-64-QAM, spectral efficiency up to 10.24 b/s/Hz, capacity using a dual-carrier scheme up to 1.536 Tb/s, and flexibility in the generation and handling of multiple optical flows on-chip. This impressive performance comes with a potential for 55% power consumption reduction and more than 60% cost/bit reduction, taking into account benefits from the material system, the integration concept, the operation at high baud-rates and the possibility for IP traffic offloading. PANTHER incorporates the transceivers in edge switch and data-center gateway architectures and evaluates their performance in lab and real-network settings. Finally, PANTHER develops a thin software layer that controls the operation parameters of the transceivers, pioneering in this way the efforts for extending the SDN hierarchy down to the flexible optical transport.
SPIRIT: Software-defined energy-efficient Photonic transceivers IntRoducing Inteligence and dynamicity in Terabit superchannels for flexible optical networks
[December 2013 – November 2016]
PCRL coordinates SPIRIT. Bandwidth‐hungry end‐user applications are stretching physical layer capacity and dictating the migration towards software-defined flexible architectures. Fully-programmable optical components supporting rate- and format-adaptation are urgently needed. SPIRIT fabricates low-cost, energy-efficient flexible transceivers that are capable of gridless operation and are compatible with both current and future applications. Single- and multi-carrier (OFDM) QAM formats are supported up to a spectral efficiency of 16 bits/s/Hz (DP-256-QAM), for throughputs of up to 1Tbit/s from a single-package transceiver. Interfacing to an external FPGA allows dynamic adjustment of the symbol rate (up to 32GBaud) and modulation format. Novel segmented-electrode InP IQ-MZMs with Vπ≈1V are developed. This allows direct digital drive using mature, high-yield CMOS electronics; SPIRIT therefore benefits from the dominant technology in IC fabrication, constituting a cost-effective, ultra-low-power solution. On‐chip, 5-bit multi-level functionality enables arbitrary optical waveform generation and transmitter-side DSP. Record-low power consumption (1.8W per MZM arm) for a device of this resolution is targeted. Compared to current transmitters, more than 50% power consumption reduction is expected for 400G and 1T applications. The CMOS electronics and InP photonics are integrated on a SOI platform, including coherent receivers and a novel, flexible MUX/DEMUX based on micro-ring filters, enabling spectrally efficient aggregation/segmentation of superchannels. The latter will be tunable across the entire C-band for truly gridless operation and fine-granularity spectrum slicing.SPIRIT will introduce intelligence in the optical layer. It envisages development of a software-defined network emulation platform that includes DSP performance monitoring for QoS management at the physical layer. Participation by industry leaders ensures a clear commercial exploitation path
ACTPHAST: Access Center for Photonics Innovation Solutions and Technology Support
[November 2013 – October 2017]
ACTPHAST is a unique “one-stop-shop” European access centre for photonics innovation solutions and technology support. ACTPHAST will support and accelerate the innovation capacity of European SMEs by providing them with direct access to the expertise and state-of-the-art facilities of Europe’s leading photonics research centres, enabling companies to exploit the tremendous commercial potential of applied photonics. Technologies available within the consortium range from fibre optics and micro optics, to highly integrated photonic platforms, with capabilities extending from design through to full system prototyping. ACTPHAST has been geographically configured to ensure all of Europe’s SMEs can avail of timely, cost-effective, and investment-free photonics innovation support, and that the extensive range of capabilities within the consortium will impact across a wide range of industrial sectors, from communications to consumer-related products, biotechnology to medical devices. The access of SMEs to ACTPHAST capabilities will be realised through focused innovation projects executed in relatively short timeframes with a critical mass of suitably qualified companies with high potential product concepts. Furthermore, through its extensive outreach activities, the programme will ensure there is an increased level of awareness and understanding across European industries of the technological and commercial potential of photonics.
PCRL participates in ACTPHAST in a three-fold manner: (i) as technology provider in photonics telecom and datacom domains; (ii) one appointed member (Prof. Avramopoulos) in the Technical Coordination Team (TCT) of ACTPHAST and (iii) formal representative of ACTPHAST’s outreach activities in the area of Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania and Malta.
BIOFOS: Micro-ring resonator-based biophotonic system for food analysis
[November 2013 – January 2017]
BIOFOS has offered a forum, driven by the end-users of the project, for identifying the needs of stakeholders from different sectors of the food industry. The outcomes of extended surveys done within the duration of the project verified that the actual specifications of BIOFOS system are in line with the stakeholder’s requirements.
On the biological platform four aptameric sequences against OTA, AFM1, AFB1, and Copper ions were characterized and three new aptamers against Lactose, Penicillin and Phosmet were developed through the process of Capture-SELEX. In parallel, the use of the two-strand approach, managed to successfully immobilize all aptamers of interest onto functionalized Si3N4 surfaces at optimal concentrations, increasing thus the analyte binding and sensitivity of the final integrated biosensing platform was developed. Finally, a high number of regeneration cycles (30) have been achieved, with minimal losses in the binding affinity of the aptamers after each successive regeneration cycle catering for a truly reusable sensor platform.
On the photonics platform, emphasis was given on the design of the individual structures, MRR chips, Y-splitters, MMI splitters and various grating design for all the production runs. These designs where used in several mask designs which resulted in total five (5) production runs to produce passive and hybrid MRR chips and testing structures to optimize the sensor chips during the project. After the passive chip production run we have produced the G1 Hybrid chip run which contained MRR sensor chips and testing structures with gratings used for hybrid integration of an 850 nm VCSEL and a 12x photodiode array on the sensor. After the two G1 runs (Hybrid and passive) another two runs were performed with the second generation of passive and hybrid chips. VCSELs and Photodiodes were bonded directly to chip with the use of Au/Au thermo-compression bonding technique and attached a FPC cable to the side of the chip using anisotropic tape. This resulted in completely functional hybrid chip which can be directly inserted into the cartridge/fluidic handling system developed in BIOFOS.
On the nanochemical platform of the sensor different methods and approaches for the functionalization of the sensor substrate and the immobilization of the aptamers on the sensing surface of the optical sensing chip were employed including, novel laser-based immobilization approaches, alkenes based surface modification by photoactivation for site-specifically modification of the sensor sensing surface, and polymer-based layer functionalization approaches. Within the course of the project, the application of laser-based approach, resulted in the efficient immobilization of the aptamers on functionalized surfaces developed both by Wu, Surfix and BRFAA and was employed for the bio-modification of the final optical chips used for validating the developed system. Moreover, the functionalization of an azide, synthesis of zwitterionic monomer for ATRP was synthesized and up-scaled it to gram scale. This resulted in the successful preparation of an antifouling zwitterionic copolymer coating bearing a variable amount (5-15%) of clickable moieties for introduction of aptamers using established click chemistry protocols (i.e. the so-called SPAAC reaction). As a result of the work achieved within the framework of these activities, a PCT patent was filed by ICCS/NTUA (in collaboration with Surfix and WU, as co-inventors) on 15.12.2016.
On the microfluidic platform the activities were devoted to the design and development of the fluidic sample pretreatment units for oil, milk and nut extract samples, the development of the microfluidic analysis cartridge, the development of the regeneration module and the electronic platform. During the project’s lifetime, the pretreatment protocols for the three selected food types i.e. nuts, olive oil and milk have been established. They can be performed without the need of laboratory equipment. Maximum a blender for nuts and a vortex for olive oil is required. The common pretreatment steps of the three different food types have been combined into the automated pretreatment unit. This unit offers to either clean the sample by filtering or concentrating the sample by using solid phase extraction. An especially for BIOFOS developed pump allows to pump a number of different aggressive solvents which are required for the solid phase extraction. For additional exploitation, this pump module was additionally converted into a standalone dispensing pump. The development phases of the pretreatment unit started with a bread board setup and finalized with its integration into the BIOFOS-system. Washing solutions allow to clean reuse the pretreatment unit.
MIRAGE: MultI-coRe, multi-level, WDM-enAbled embedded optical enGine for TErabit board-to-board and rack-to-rack parallel optics
[October 2012 – May 2016]
PCRL coordinated MIRAGE which was a European project on photonic integration, aiming to implement cost-optimized components for high-speed optical interconnects. In order to raise the bar of interconnect speed and avoid a capacity crunch in the data centre, MIRAGE introduced new concepts providing new degrees of multiplexing. Within the project a manifold of new developments and disciplines were leveraged effectively:
- data transmission in single-mode, multi-core fibre
- introduction of multi-level modulation schemes for capacity upgrade
- introduction of wavelength multiplexing in Active Optical Cables
- introduction of space division multiplexing in multi-core fibers
To introduce these new concepts in the datacom sector in a cost-effective and commercially viable manner, MIRAGE reassessed the existing technological baseline to develop a flexible and upgradeable “optical engine” capable of different configurations in order to adapt the application requirements. The MIRAGE optical engine blends the most prominent optical interconnect technologies (VCSELs, silicon photonics) with concepts new to the datacom sector (multi-core fiber, wavelength multiplexing) using state-of-the-art 2.5 and 3D integration.
Achievement of the project’s technological objectives has led to a significant number of scientific publications in top-tier journals and conferences. The technical competencies developed in MIRAGE have opened up extensive exploitation opportunities to the project partners, enhancing their competitiveness in the multi-billion market of optical interconnects and creating new employment opportunities in Europe.
PhoxTroT: PHOtoniCS for High-Performance, Low-Cost & Low-Energy Data Centers, High Performance Computing Systems: TeRabit/s Optical Interconnect Technologies for On-Board, Board-to-Board, Rack-to-Rack data links
[October 2012 – September 2016]
PhoxTroT is a large-scale research effort focusing on high-performance, low-energy and cost and small-size optical interconnects across the different hierarchy levels in data center and high-performance computing systems: on-board, board-to-board and rack-to-rack. PhoxTroT will tackle optical interconnects in a holistic way, synergizing the different fabrication platforms in order to deploy the optimal “mix&match” technology and tailor this to each interconnect layer. PhoxTroT will follow a layered approach from near-term exploitable to more forward looking but of high expected gain activities.
The objective of PhoxTroT is the deployment of
- Generic building block that can be used for a broad range of applications, extending performance beyond Tb/s and reducing energy by more than 50%.
- A unified integration/packaging methodology as a cost/energy-reduction factor for board-adaptable 3D SiP transceiver and router optochip fabrication.
- The whole “food-chain” of low-cost and low-energy interconnect technologies concluding to 3 fully functional prototype systems: an >1Tb/s throughput optical PCB and >50% reduced energy requirements, a high-end >2Tb/s throughput optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection, and a 1.28Tb/s 16QAM Active Optical Cable that reduces power requirements by >70%.
Silicon-based, integrated Optical RAM enabling High-Speed Applications in Computing and Communication
[September 2011 – September 2014]
PCRL participated in the EU-funded project RAMPLAs, a cross-disciplinary project that aimed to revisit the fundamentals of optical RAM technology and to develop the first 100GHz RAM chips, fostering their effective application in ultra-fast energy-efficient computing architectures and optical communication systems. RAMPLAS followed a holistic approach and blended innovation in computer science, optical design, photonic integration and semiconductor physics. Novel epitaxial methods for the fabrication of ultrafast dilute-nitride-antimonide on GaAs (InGaAsNSb/GaAs) SOAs acting as active elements for the 100GHz optical RAM chips and being capable of uncooled operation. Heterointegration techniques on established SOI technology paved the way towards the development of densely integrated optical multi-bit RAMs and kByte capacities. The research outcomes of RAMPLAS have been evaluated in a solid proof-of-concept validation plan based both on simulations and experiments, intending to set the scene for new paradigms in Computing, Communications and Test & Measurement. PCRL’s role was to identify application scenarios of the optical RAM in the latter two fields and to evaluate the system-level performance of the RAM-chips.
Direct 100G connectivity with optoelectronic POLYmer-InP integration for data center Systems
[October 2010 – January 2014]
POLYSYS aimed to realize for the first time serial 100 Gb/s direct connectivity in rack-to-rack and chip-to-chip data communications systems. In specific, POLYSYS focused on the development of photonic and electronic components operating directly at 100 Gb/s based on electro-optic polymers enabling the best possible material compatibility with current polymer-based optical backplanes. The technical objectives of POLYSYS were achieved through the cost-effective polymer material system for realizing the electro-optic components and the utilization of InP for developing high-performance optical and optoelectronic components.
After 40 months of development efforts it can be said that POLYSYS has been extremely successful in helping EO polymers evolve from a device specific technology into a broader purpose platform for small-scale and high-performance integrated circuits for datacom applications. Achievements to this direction include:
- The monolithic integration of MMI couplers and tunable Bragg-gratings together with MZMs on EO polymer chips.
- The hybrid integration of InP chips (laser diodes, gain chips, photodiodes) with EO polymer chips and the development of lasers with 17 nm tunability combining InP gain chips with monolithic Bragg-gratings.
- The integration of EO polymer chips with InP-DHBT circuits using wire-bonds and the packaging of integrated transmitter modules.
At the same time, POLYSYS has also been extremely successful in extending the limits of InP photodetector technology and developing quad arrays of pin-photodiodes and pinTWAs with potential for 100G operation, as well as in advancing the state-of-the-art of InP-DHBT technology and developing novel MUX-DRV circuits and twin-DEMUX circuits for operation at 100 Gb/s. Through the integration of all these components, POLYSYS has impressively achieved the final packaging of six out of the seven modules that had targeted:
- The 100 Gb/s transmitter
- The 2×100 Gb/s transmitter
- The tunable 100 Gb/s transmitter
- The 100 Gb/s integrated optical interconnect
- The 4×100 Gb/s pin-DEMUX receiver
- The 4×100 Gb/s pinTWA-DEMUX receiver
Four of these modules (100G Tx, 2x100G Tx, tunable 100G Tx and 4x100G pin-DEMUX receiver) were successfully tested and confirmed the potential for error-free operation at 80 and 100 Gb/s and transmission over SMF links of at least 1km without dispersion compensation, whereas the testing of a fifth one (4x100G pinTWA-DEMUX) will be completed after the final review meeting.
POLYSYS gained remarkable visibility through a variety of dissemination actions and prestigious publications (including the ECOC 2012 PDP), and succeeded in defining concrete exploitation plans by all partners. Significant achievements that are related to the actual exploitation of the foreground knowledge are the industrial strategic partnership between GigOptix and HHI in the last period of the project and the funding of a follow-up research project (http://www.ict-panther.eu/) that was based on the knowhow of POLYSYS.
ΒlendinG diverse photonics And eLectronics on silicon for integrAted and fully funCTIonal COherent Tb Ethernet
[October 2010 – September 2013]
PCRL participated in GALACTICO, a collaborative project that developed photonic integration technology enabling cost-effective components for high-capacity 100Gb/s long-haul networks. GALACTICO aimed to squeeze current bulky and costly 100GbE interfaces into silicon-based PICs and provide integrated coherent transmitters and receivers that deliver a massive amount of aggregate bandwidth. The GALACTICO integration approach relied on the right mix of the three most established material systems, i.e. InP, GaAs, Si and combined their strengths on a common silicon platform, thus achieving low-cost, high performance and large scale of integration. To address scalability, GALACTICO integrated 6x100Gb/s DWDM transmitters and receivers, utilizing on-chip arrays of GaAs IQ-modulators and InP photodetectors. Further increase of the channel rate achieved through the development of integrated multi-level SiGe HBT electronic drivers, enabling line rates beyond 200Gb/s with higher-order QAM modulation formats. PRCL was responsible for subsystem design, component characterization and system experimental evaluation.
Merging Plasmonic and Silicon Photonics Technology towards Tb/s routing in optical interconnects
[January 2010 – June 2013]
PLATON aimed to address the size and power consumption bottleneck in Data Centers and High-Performance Computing Systems (HPCS) by realizing chip-scale high-throughput routing fabrics with reduced energy consumption and footprint requirements. It intended to demonstrate Tb/s optical router prototypes for optical interconnects adopting plasmonics as its disruptive technology to reduce size and energy values. To achieve this, PLATON intended to deploy innovative plasmonic structures for switching applications and to develop novel fabrication processes for merging plasmonics with silicon nanophotonics and electronics. The enhanced functionality of PLATON’s platform was utilized to develop and demonstrate Tb/s routing, enabling the penetration of a merged plasmonics/photonics configuration in short-range blade and backplane data interconnects. PLATON’s optical board technology was expected to blend the functional potential of small-footprint, high-bandwidth plasmonic structures and the integration potential of plasmonics with the more mature SOI technology providing a new generation of miniaturized photonic components. Its main objectives span along the fabrication and demonstration of:
- a whole new series of 2×2 plasmonic switches with ultra-small footprint, very low power consumption and less than 1μsec switching times,
- a low latency, small-footprint 4×4 plasmonic thermooptic switch,
- an optically addressable plasmonic 1×2 switch capable of operating at bitrates in excess of 10Gb/s, and
- A 2×2 and a 4×4 Tb/s optical routing platforms relying on SOI motherboard hosting the plasmonic switching matrix and the IC header processor for application in optical blade and backplane interconnects.
System-level integration involved the demonstration of the packaged Tb/s routing prototype offering minimum space requirements and up to 1.12Tb/s throughput. Its performance was evaluated in a real WDM 40 Gb/s testbed for optical interconnects.
Pan-European Photonics Task Force: Integrating Europe’s Expertise on Photonic Subsystems
[May 2008 – April 2012]
EURO-FOS has been a network of excellence (NoE) focusing on photonic components and subsystems for optical communications, funded by European Commission (EC) under the 7th Framework Programme (FP7). It started in May 2008 and concluded in April 2012. Its concept was conceived upon the observation that the map of European research in photonic communications technology includes a large number of active but smaller in scale academic laboratories distributed all over Europe. EURO-FOS has been an ambitious initiative to integrate expertise, equipment and resources from the 17 participating institutes towards the creation of a powerful Pan-European laboratory (eurofoslab) that scales more than linearly the potential of the individual institutes.
Using the structure of eurofoslab, the objective of EURO-FOS has been three-fold:
1) to enable partners make top-quality research through the sharing of ideas and resources and through the organization of large-scale experimental activities,
2) to enhance the collaboration of partners with industry through the agreement on common research thrusts and through the organization of a service provision platform addressing the needs of the photonics industry, and
3) to exploit the size of the network and organize a large number of education and dissemination activities spreading the word for photonics across Europe.
The operation of EURO-FOS supported the integration of all partners through frequent meetings, continuous interaction, participation in the set up of eurofoslab and participation in joint experimental activities (JEAs). Looking back, the things that EURO-FOS has achieved over its 4-year lifetime look really impressive:
The network succeeded in the development of eurofoslab through the registration of expertise and resources in the web-based inventories of the lab. A total of 839 items have been registered including more than 50 large-scale optical communications testbeds. Moreover, the network succeeded in creating the structure and the web-tools that enable searching and booking of appropriate equipment, planning of experimental activities and reporting on the progress on these activities, thus turning the vision of the Pan-European Laboratory into a reality.
Furthermore, EURO-FOS succeeded in integrating all participating institutes in its research activities. Research was organized within 4 centres of excellence (CEs) covering different discrete scientific areas of optical communications. To implement this research, partners organized a total of 66 JEAs involving the participation of a large number of external industrial and academic partners. The scientific outcome of these activities has been impressive: more than 400 EURO-FOS papers were published, some of them presenting world-record results and scientific “firsts”. Moreover, a total of 12 patents were filed aiming at turning the research output into exploitable technology.
Regarding the education and dissemination activities, EURO-FOS organized 7 workshops, 5 booths at major photonic conferences, 2 summer schools and 2 winter schools, and a large number of smaller-scale events addressing the general public and the local communities. As a result of the collaboration of the partners on educational activities, the network produced an education kit and organized the framework for joint supervision from senior staff of 13 PhD students working on the scientific topics of EURO-FOS.
Finally, EURO-FOS succeeded in bringing academia closer to industry. The network created a cluster of 29 industrial affiliates that have been closely monitoring and participating in the network activities, and an industrial advisory board (IAB) consisting of representatives from 6 of these affiliates (ADVA, NSN, ALU Germany, Tellabs, VPI and Finisar). Through continuous interaction with the members of the IAB, EURO-FOS has been trying to align its research topics with industrial trends and explore the interest of industry for the set up of a service provision platform in the field of photonic communications based on the expertise and equipment of European academic institutes. Although the idea of securing the self-sustainability of eurofoslab through the establishment of industrial collaborations on a pay-for-service basis has been over-optimistic, significant steps were made; as for example the identification of the need for further elaboration on the legal framework for the operation of such a service provision platform, the identification of industrial interest for specific technical services, the pilot run of “charge-free” service provision projects in the last year of the network, and the definition of a viable techno-economic plan for retaining the eurofoslab structure in the post EURO-FOS era with a 2-year horizon.
Terabit-on-chip: micro and nano-scale silicon photonic integrated components and sub-systems enabling Tb/s capacity, scalable and fully integrated photonic routers
[May 2008 – September 2011]
BOOM has been a photonic integration concept aiming to develop compact, cost-effective and power efficient silicon photonic components for high capacity routing applications. The project has focused on a hybrid integration technology allowing Si manufacturing with III-V material processing for the implementation of a wide range of optical functionalities, including high speed optical transmission, modulation and wavelength conversion, on the silicon-on-insulator substrate.
BOOM has invested on the micro-solder fabrication technique for the hybridization of active components on silicon boards. The Au-Sn bumping process has reached adequate level of optimization during the BOOMing years. A key-milestone success has been the flip-chip bonding of SOAs and EML transmitters on the SOI boards with placement accuracy down to submicron level enabling the fabrication of silicon-on-insulator hybrid components with good electrical/optical properties. This has been a major achievement since it proved that the current flip-chip assembly technology could certainly provide mounting capabilities well below the multi-mode fiber limit. Compared to other techniques, BOOM micro-soldering technology has been more flexible and compatible with advanced III-V processing steps.
BOOM has advanced the state-of-the-art in photonic wavelength conversion devices developing scalable all-optical wavelength converters (AOWCs) with record integrated line-rate performance. In contrary with silica-on-silicon demonstrations, BOOM converters have increased aggregate switching capacity by a factor of 4, assisting for first time data rates up to 160Gb/s. In terms of footprint, silicon wavelength converters have been more compact devices (10 times squeeze) due to their high refractive index material. With respect to energy consumption, BOOM devices consumed less power (by a factor of 7) compared to Mach-zehnder interferometric structures due to the utilization of only one active element for the wavelength conversion process.
The InP-photodetectors developed in BOOM have been in direct competition with Ge-detectors for integration with silicon waveguides. Their hybridization has been performed with the heterogeneous wafer-scale integration technique. A persistent difficulty with this approach has been the high series resistance and the non-uniformity BCB layer thickness limiting the high-speed optical transit time of the detectors. From a fabrication point of view, a key success has been an adaptation in the flow process mechanism in order to minimize contamination of the surface prior to metal deposition ensuring good metal/semiconductor contact. From the design point of view, a significant improvement has been performed in the III-V epitaxial growth so as the photodetector to be more transit time limited than RC limited. The new technological methodology has been proved reliable and fully extendable to other materials and other wavelength ranges.
As general conclusion, BOOM has offered mature technology setting the basis for large scale implementation of cost-effective and power-efficient silicon components. BOOM has faced difficulties but eventually succeeded in demonstrating reliable and state-of-the-art components. In our opinion, BOOM has been a highly successful project that turned silicon photonics into a stable and powerful integration platform.
Agile Photonic Integrated Systems-on-Chip enabling WDM Terabit Networks
[April 2008 – September 2011]
APACHE aimed to develop photonic integrated components capable of generating, regenerating and receiving signals of various modulation formats and rates involving amplitude- and differentially phase- encoded signals (i.e. OOK, DPSK and DQPSK) for high capacity agile WDM optical networks. Component fabrication within APACHE focused on the development of a hybrid integration technology platform for the integration of high performance monolithic active elements based on Indium Phosphide (InP) on low loss silica-on-silicon substrates, enabling the development of advanced photonic integrated circuits (PICs) with complex functionalities on chip.
More specifically, APACHE envisaged highly ambitious objectives that dealt with the design and fabrication of a) two types of transmitter arrays suitable for metro/core terabit network applications, b) a multi-format signal processing chip suitable for signal regeneration and wavelength conversion of different modulation formats and c) receiver arrays suitable for amplitude and phase encoded signals. The building blocks that were developed comprised arrays of: nested IQ Mach Zehnder Modulators (MZMs) and tunable distributed-feedback (DFB) laser arrays targeting up to 200 Gb/s throughput for single chips and terabit capacity (5x200Gb/s) for the array device, arrays of reflective electro-absorption modulators (REAMs) and arrays of reflective SOA-based lasers targeting 10x10Gb/s low cost metro applications, arrays of detectors with integrated delay interferometers for phase decoding on chip and SOA arrays embedded on complex Mach Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) structures for signal processing functionalities. The fabrication activities were supported by sophisticated simulation and software design tools that were developed within the project. Within APACHE, a full version of a software ‘design kit’ for photonic integration was demonstrated commercially and comprised the first design tool for the integration of optical circuits. Finally, the developed photonic devices have been successfully characterized and tested under laboratory and real network WDM transmission scenarios. Benchmarking of the APACHE devices against Ericsson transponders demonstrated that the APACHE technology would be an eligible solution for 100G systems in the next two or three years when their overall cost was expected to be further reduced.
The APACHE research outcomes and results have been presented in several International conferences, exhibition halls and variable types of audiences as well as in peer reviewed journals and magazines. A number of invited talks and paper contributions regarding the APACHE technology have been carried out. The exploitation of the APACHE technology within industry and commercial use was also one of the main targets of the project. The commercial version of the first software design kit platform was released within the duration of the project. Also, the consortium continuously pursued to advance the knowledge and experience gained within APACHE by promoting external contracts with industrial partners. In all, APACHE successfully completed most of its technical goals and promoted the dissemination and exploitation of results yielding a direct impact on the socio-economic and the societal position of the European Community.
Building the Future Optical Network in Europe
[January 2008 – February 2011]
The core activity of the BONE-project was the stimulation of intensified collaboration, exchange of researchers and integration of activities and know-how into and amongst partners. Through the establishment of Virtual Centres of Excellence, the BONE-project looks into the future and builds and supports the final “Network of the Future” through education & training, research tools & testlabs on new technologies & architectures. The leading-edge position of European Research in the field and, consequently, of European industry, could be threatened by returning to an uncoordinated and scattered approach to optical networking research. BONE consolidates the process, supported during FP6, of integration and reorganization of research efforts across European academic and industrial groups in FP7 through:
Building Virtual Centres of Excellence that cover specific issues in the field of Optical Networking that can serve to European industry with education & training, research tools & testlabs and pave the way to development of new technologies & architectures.
Reaching out, including and linking to research activities in national programmes, or programmes outside Europe.
Stimulating an intensified collaboration, exchange of researchers between the research groups involved and active in the field.
Disseminating the expertise and know-how of these European Research groups to a broader audience, both R&D oriented as well as industry- and decision maker oriented.
Cost-effective MULTI-WAVElength Laser System
[November 2005 – October 2007]
The deployment of wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems has allowed for unparalleled network upgrading in network capacity and transmission lengths. As WDM technology advances towards cost-sensitive Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) and even Access Networks, a major problem identified is the high complexity and cost of WDM transmitters. WDM test and network architectures currently rely on large banks of continuous-wave lasers or DFB lasers, which are often tunable in wavelength. Each single laser source acts as an optical source for a single wavelength (channel), requiring its own drive electronics and current/temperature controlling. Aside from the high initial cost of this approach, upgrading such high capacity WDM network means adding a laser source for each additional channel required leading to unacceptable installation cost.
The approach in MultiWave was based on a passively mode-locked pulse-generating laser with consecutive passive spectral broadening and subsequent passive channel selection through spectral filtering. The MultiWave laser system consists of three fundamental building blocks (see 1 & 2): the initial pulse generating laser source (2), the creation of ultra-broad spectrum (1) and the channel spacing selection stages (3). The most apparent advantage is that all components work mainly on a passive basis, therefore the need for control and monitor electronics is minimized, as well as power consumption, generated heat, space requirements and cost. There is only simple low frequency electronics necessary, which is mostly already available off the shelf. All the components are compact, integratable on a single motherboard and easy to assemble.
Optical Networks: Towards Bandwidth Manageability and Cost Efficiency
[March 2004 – February 2008]
The Network of Excellence (NoE) “e-Photon/ONe+: Towards Bandwidth Manageability and Cost Efficiency” covered the technical area of optical networking.
The project was funded for 24 months in FP6 Call 4 under strategic objective “Broadband for All”, with starting date March 1st, 2006, in temporal and technical continuation with a previous project called e-Photon/ONe funded in FP6 Call 1. Overall, the two phases of the NoE were funded for 4 years (plus a one-month extension).
The broad objectives of the e-Photon/ONe Network of Excellence (in its two phases) have been the following:
- Integrate and focus the rich know-how available in Europe on optical communications and networking (from optical technologies, to networking devices, to network architectures and protocols, to the new services fostered by photonic technologies), both in universities and in research centers of well-positioned telecom manufacturers and operators.
- Favor a coordination among the participants to reach a consensus on the engineering choices towards the deployment of optical networks, possibly providing inputs to standardization bodies and guidelines to operators.
- Provide guidelines for the design of an optical Internet backbone, metro, access and in-home infrastructure, supporting traffic engineering and quality of service management in an end-to-end perspective.
- Understand how the intrinsic characteristic of optical technologies can be exploited to provide large bandwidth together with acceptable levels of quality of service and protection/restoration inside and across network domains.
- Promote and organize integration activities aiming at establishing a good exchange of information, and long-term collaborations in terms of research, infrastructure sharing, education and training, among participating institutions.
- Promote and organize activities to disseminate knowledge on optical networks in the technical community and to the general public, through coordinated publications, technical events, and interactions with other consortia in the same technical area.
In addition to research and technical activities, e-Photon/ONe put a strong emphasis on dissemination activities, with the aim of converting the international reputation of individual partners into a quality label for the network. Specific dissemination goals were:
- Regularly organize technical schools on selected topics;
- Organize workshops with these schools where young researchers can present their research work;
- Establish regular links with, and provide active support to, major international conferences on optical networking and communications;
- Present and promote e-Photon/ONe within the international scientific community;
- Establish links with other EU-projects in the field, and with a number of industry associations or professional organizations;
- Favor technical interactions with excellent institutions outside Europe (USA, Japan, China, ecc.);
- Publication of joint technical papers;
- Active participation to editorial boards of optical networking journals (Elsevier Optical Switching and Networking, IEEE Transactions on Networking, etc.);
- Management of the e-Photon/ONe web site.
Finally, given the strong presence of universities in the project, a significant effort was devoted to teaching and training activities. Training activities must help improve the skills and knowledge of the future young workforce and indirectly help to establish a competitive and knowledge economy. e-Photon/ONe focused on organizing technical schools (mainly for PhD students), and on searching consensus in teaching programs. More specifically, e-Photon/ONe partners collaborated to define a syllabus for a master program in optical communications and networks, with collection and joint editing of teaching material (slides and course notes).
Multi – Functional In tegrated Arrays of Interferometric Switches
[September 2004 – August 2007]
The MUFINS project aimed to take the next logical step in the evolution of all-optical signal processing, to integrate multiple switching elements on a single chip, and to interconnect these integrated switching elements into functional logic modules with the aid of a external components. 2×2 Mach Zehnder Interferometers that operate as all-optical switches were fabricated as two and four element integrated arrays. These switches were used as the main building blocks for the development of a wide range of functionalsubsystems, such as Header Extraction, Half Adder, Full Adder, Time Slot Interchanger, Clock and Data Recovery, Data Vortex Switch, 4×4 Switching Matrix, all- optical 4-wavelength Burst Mode Receiver, 40 Gb/s all-optical Burst Mode Receiver.
All-optical LAbel-SwApping employing optical logic G ates in NEtwork nodes
[January 2004 – December 2006]
PCRL participated in the LASAGNE project that aimed at studying, proposing and validating the use of all-optical logic gates and optical flip-flops based on commercially-available technologies to implement the required functionalities at the metro network nodes in All-optical label swapping (AOLS) networks. The optical gates were implemented using the same key building block: SOA-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). A functional photonic router prototype incorporating all-optical label swapping and wavelength conversion was integrated using optical logic gates and optical flip-flops. This photonic router was designed to be modular, scalable, and with potential for system integration.
Digital Optical Logic Modules
[November 1998 – September 2002]
PCRL coordinated project DO_ALL, a project within the ESPRIT frame-programme. The aim of project DO_ALL was to research in a systematic way the state-of-the-art in high-speed all-optical logic and to develop novel signal processing concepts and technologies. In this respect, DO_ALL has defined, designed, and developed the necessary set of devices and modules required for the construction of optical logic circuits and has applied them into application experiments of nontrivial functionality to qualify their performance and limitations. Within this frame, the applications that have been explored were (1) the demonstration of all-optical bit-error-rate (BER) measurements capability and (2) the demonstration of an optically addressable exchange–bypass switch using all-optical techniques. The first application was selected so as to investigate whether it is possible to build a complex optical circuit consisting of several optical logic modules that would challenge in performance the corresponding electronic designs. The second application was chosen so as to demonstrate that the logical functionality of optical circuits is advantageous since in this instance one optical gate can replace several electronic gates.